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The disaster relief operation by the Japan Self-Defense Force

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what is "The disaster relief operation by the Japan Self-Defense Force"?

There is a system, the disaster relief operation to send the corps of the Self-Defense Force to based on the request of the chief in the local government(Prefectural governor) when the disaster occurs, in the Self-Defense Force ( the army ) in Japan. This thing is called "saigai-haken" in Japanese.

It doesn't handle it on this Web site because it is called "kokusai-kinkyuu-enzyo-katudou" when the disaster rescue operation out of Japan is done like "Indonesia, Sumatran coast large-scale earthquake, and Indian Ocean tidal wave" in a domestic method of Japan.

What one is the purpose of the disaster relief operation?

It defends human life and fortune in case of the disaster to maintain public order.

the domestic law in Japan about disaster relief operation?

A Self-Defense Force is made " the duty to do If necessary " in the disaster relief operation in the article of 3rd of the Self-Defense Forces Law and article 83.

It judges necessity from the viewpoint, the exigency, the public, the non- substitutability, being general.

The Self-Defense Forces Law, the Disaster Measures Basic Law admit the right for the prefectural governor and so on to request Director General of the Defense Agency(Minister of State) or the one ( the post command and so on ) to specify to send a disaster.

In Japan very much oneself controlling, the disaster relief operation can be dispatched to the action of the Self-Defense Force in the simplest procedure. The disaster relief operation is because not to use arms basically doesn't limit national right in the force in the presupposition.

What in the disaster relief operation, does it do?

The lifesaving ( the collapsed house, the shipwreck large ship, the lost climber and so on ), the repair of the bank, the repair of the road, the transportation of drinking water, the meal offer, the temporary bath, the extinguishing a fire, the conveyance of the onboard medical crisis and the casualty from the isolated island, and so on. (2004.4-2005.3) in 2004 was done 884 annual times.

The most done activity is the conveyance of the onboard medical crisis and the casualty from the isolated island which is done with the aircraft. in 2004 was done 616 times.

Who pays a fee?

As the principle, the central government pays a fee as the part of defense cost. It isn't required from the country even if the object is a foreigner and is the one which went as the measure of the criminal act. The Japanese government is appropriating 62,500,000,000 yen to disaster relief operation ( 2005 ).

because the Self-Defense Force is made " the duty to do If necessary " in the disaster relief operation, the central government pays a fee as the part of defense cost.

history

Disaster relief operation was begun from the rescue operation to the disaster which occurred with Ruth typhoon in 1951. disaster relief operation is already done at the scale with about 32,000, equal to or more than 7,300,000 pieces of the total number. It is the task which has the biggest results of the Self-Defense Force history to have participated in the war hardly after World War II.

The 1st period(1951~around1965)

As for the 1st period, the times when a regulation about the disaster relief operation was made, it are a time to the first half from the 1950s to the 60s.

In those days immediately after World War II ends, the country wasted. A lot of disasters occurred because of it. The chief in the local government

It often used disaster relief operation of the Self-Defense Force "saigai-haken" from above reason.

The side of the Defense Agency and the Self-Defense Force was negative attitude about the disaster relief operation. It thought that the side of the Defense Agency and the Self-Defense Force wanted to regain trust in the people to the Self-Defense Force ( the army ) which was lost in being defeated to the war on the one hand.Therefore, they appealed to the disaster relief operation which becomes for the people.

Also, the politician in the central government demanded the implementation of the disaster relief operation strongly sometimes to the Self-Defense Force. Because to appeal to the people. For the profit of or the local constituency

The 2nd period(around1965~1994)

The 2nd period is the times of the silence.

A chief in the local government which was strongly influenced in the socialism mainly in the urban area at these time was chosen by the election. They considered that the Self-Defense Force does the existence which is an unconstitutional. They didn't request the "disaster relief operation by the Self-Defense Force" as much as possible.

Because the big disaster decreased, the majority people didn't have an interest in "the disaster relief operation by Self-Defense Force".

The central government was maintaining that the Self-Defense Force was constitutionality. but The central government avoided concerning a Self-Defense Force as much as possible. Because, the opposition party resists, it is because the other important problem gets not to advance forward.

As a result, the disaster relief operation became insufficient and the disaster relief operation like Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (6400 dead persons in 1995 ) became not able to support a truly need situation.

The 3rd period(1995~)

The 3rd period is the times of which the Self-Defense Force states an opinion about the disaster relief operation and they take action.

Around the 2nd period end, some corps in the provinces, some officer began to show the movement to tackle disaster relief operation actively.

The northern army(Hokkaido) Commanding General Toshiyuki Shikata lieutenant general did a large-scale disaster relief operation exercise in 1991.

The Yoshihiro Yamaguchi colonel built a volcanic observation network by the military observation equipment as the Mount Unzen(hugendake,Heiseishinzan) eruption disaster disaster relief operation unit commandant.

Colonel Yamaguchi told all information on the volcano which the Self-Defense Force observed to the local government,the scholar and the local resident. ( Anyone could be gotten because Colonel Yamaguchi officially announced the frequency of military wireless ).

"Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway" and "Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake" which occurred in 1995 gave the people a shock by the big damage. Specifically, in "Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake", for the restriction which was imposed on the Self-Defense Force, it wasn't possible to do an enough rescue operation about the initial motion. It had a big impact on the people who didn't understand the actual state well. On the other hand, this disaster relief operation made re-recognize that the Self-Defense Force was the organization which is enough for the trust. That at the same time there was a surplus restriction in the disaster relief operation for the purpose of the civilian control was recognized.

After two disasters. "disaster relief operation by The Self-Defense Force " did revision to be able to apply in the part of the authority which the police, fire fighting and local government has. At present, the Self-Defense Force cooperates with each administrative organ and the non-governmental organization and tackles protection against disasters. Some retired self-defense officials is employed in the local government and is providing the management of the organization about the emergency and know-how about the cooperation with the Self-Defense Force.


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