用語集(英語)

Accountability: The extent to which a person's behavior is observed and evaluated by others, with important rewards and punishments (Ferris et al., 1995). Being answerable to some person or group for performing up to a particular rule or standard, or behaving in a prescribed manner (Ferris et al., 1995). Personal accountability is a mechanism for enforcing organizational norms and rules as well as legal prescriptions and restraints (Tetlock, 1992). Externally, accountability is defined in terms of (1) a system of knowing about and evaluating someone's behavior vis-a-vis some standard, and (2) a system of rewards and punishments that are contingent upon these evaluations. Internally, accountability reflects these external conditions in the knowledge and desire to behave in such a way that the regulations, rules, and expectations will be complied with and met (Ferris at al., 1995).

Accountability (general): The perceived need to justify or defend a decision or action to some audience(s) which has potential reward and sanction power, and where such rewards and sanctions are perceived as contingent on accountability conditions (Flink, in press).

Antisocial behavior: The wide range of actions that are deviant from prosocial behavior.

Charisma: Charisma reflects follower perceptions that the leader is extremely trustworthy and is capable of achieving an important vision. Inspirational motivation reflects the quality and emotional appeal of the leader's vision (Chemers, 1997)

Contextual performance (CP): Behaviors that do not directly support the technical core activities, but rather support the organizational, social, psychological environment in which the technical core must function. On the other hand, task performance (TP) is defined as behaviors that are formally recognized as part of job and either contribute to the organizations technical core directly or service it indirectly (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993).

Dimensions of OCBs: (1) Altruism, (2) generalized compliance, (3) sportsmanship, (4) courtesy, and (5) civic virtue (Organ, 1988). (1) Loyalty, (2) obedience, (3) advocacy participation, (4) functional participation, and (5) social participation (Van Dyne, et al., 1994). (1) Interpersonal helping (altruism behaviors), (2) individual initiative (civic virtue and advocacy behaviors), (3) personal industry (conscientiousness and functional participation behaviors) (Moorman & Blakely, 1995), and (4) loyal boosterism (loyalty behaviors). (1) Volunteering for activities beyond a person's formal job expectations, (2) persistence of enthusiasm and application when needed to complete important task requirements, (3) assistance to others, (4) following rules and prescribed procedures even when it is inconvenient, and (5) openly espousing and defending organization objectives (Borman & Motovidlo, 1993). OCB-I (those targeted toward an individuals as they are acted out) and OCB-O (the organization or unit as an entity is the target) (Williams & Anderson, 1991).

Dispositions: Individual's psychological attributes such as personality characteristics, need states, attitudes, preferences, and motives. Dispositions generally are viewed as tendencies to respond to situations, or classes of situations in particular, predetermined manner (House et al., 1996).

Distal motivation processes: The choice to engage any, some, or all of one's resources for attainment of a goal (Kanfer & Acreman, 1989). These processes are initially antecedent to task engagement. Perceived performance-utility, perceived effort-utility, and perceived performance-resource relation determine distal decisions.

Employee deviant behavior: Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and in so doing threatens the well-being of an organization, its members, or both (Robinson & Bennett, 1995). Deviant behaviors include subtle expressions of rebellion, such as gossiping and taking unapproved breaks, as well as more aggressive actions, such as theft and verbal abuse.

Expectancy theory: It suggests that people chose their behaviors based on their perceptions of whether the behavior is likely to lead to valued outcomes. It is similar to many of the rational expected value models used in economics and decision theory (Mitchell, 1997) In VIE theory, expectancy is defined as an action-outcome estimate, usually in the form of a probability. Instrumentality refers to the relationships between an initial outcome and secondary outcomes. Valence refers to the value that one places on the receipt of these secondary outcomes.

Extra-role behavior (ERB): Behavior which benefits the organization and/or is intended to benefit the organization, which is discretionary and which goes beyond existing role expectations. In-role behavior, on the other hand, is behavior which is required or expected as part of performing the duties and responsibilities of the assigned role (Van Dyne et al., 1995).

Free riding: A choice of individuals sometimes make to avoid cooperating in the pursuit of rewards to be shared by the members of group, organization, or society, while expecting to derive personal benefit from those rewards, acquired through other's efforts. Social loafing is conceptually different from free riding in that the latter grows out of rational calculation but social loafing can occur without conscious awareness (Wagner, 1995).

Goals: Internal representations of desired states (outcomes, events or processes) (Austin & Vancouver)

Goal-setting intervention: In this intervention, goal influence performance by providing direction for action and engaging other cognitive self-regulatory processes: self-monitoring of performance, self-evaluation, and self-reaction. The process of translating goals into performance requires sufficient cognitive capacity to regulate performance while simultaneously addressing specific task demands (Gist et al. 1991).

Grievance: Any employee or managerial complaint about the employment relationship. A grievance recognized by management may be raised directly by the employee with his or her immediate supervisor, with higher management, with the personnel department, and ombudsman, or a civil service commission or panel (Peterson, 1992)

Group: Groups consist of (1) two or more individuals who (2) interact with each other and (3) are intedependent in some way. Also groups have a past, present, and future and the past and the future influence the present (Ilgen et al., 1993).

Individual consideration: The degree to which the leader treats each follower in a way that is equitable and satisfying, but differentiated from the way other followers are treated (Chemers, 1997)

Influence: Persuasion with the recipient having latitude for a free choice rather than be subject to imposed authority (Hollander, 1993)

Intellectual stimulation: The extent to which the leader both encourages the follower to question past ideas and supports the subordinate for thinking independently and creatively (Chemers, 1997)

Job satisfaction: An internal state that is expressed by affectively and/or cognitively evaluating an experienced job with some degree of favor or disfavor (Brief, 1998).

KSA: Knowledge refers to an organized body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, which if applied, makes adequate job performance possible. Skills refer to the capability to perform job operations with ease and precision. Most often skills refer to psychomotor-type activities. Ability usually refers to cognitive capabilities necessary to perform a job function (Goldstein, 1993).

Leadership: The ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization of which they are members (House et al., 1999).

Learning: A relatively permanent change in knowledge or skill produced by experience (Weiss, 1990)

Organizational citizenship behavior: Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization (Organ, 1988).

Organizational commitment: Affective commitment refers to the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization ("want to"). Continuance commitment refers to an awareness of the cost associated with leaving the organization ("need to"). Normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment ("ought to")

Organizational Retaliatory Behavior (ORB): The behavioral responses of disgruntled employees to perceived unfair treatment. Examples of ORB include purposefully damaging equipment and taking supplies home without permission.

Power: The ability to exert some degree of control over other persons, things, and events (Hollander, 1993)

Principled Organizational Dissent (POD): A protest and/or effort to change the organizational status quo because of a conscientious objection to current policy or practice. The term "principled" applies to the issue at stake, e.g., one which violates a standard of justice, honesty, or economy (Graham, 1986; Van Dyne et al., 1995)

Prosocial organizational behavior (POB): Any behavior enacted in an organizational context that attempts to improve the welfare of the person or persons to whom the behavior is directed (Organ, 1990; Brief & Motiwidlo, 1986). This definition specifies no qualifying condition that the behavior must, even indirectly or ultimately, benefit the organization.

Proximal motivation processes: The psychological processes that determine the distribution of effort across on-task and off-task activities during task engagement (i.e., effort previously devoted through distal decisions). These motivational processes comprise self-regulatory activities (i.e., self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reaction). The critical feature of proximal motivational processes is that their engagement requires attentional effort, effort that may compete with on-task and off-task demands (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989).

Psychological contract: Beliefs individuals hold about the exchange relationship between themselves and an employer, in essence, what people understand the employment relationship to mean [e.g., high-involvement relationship or limited transactional employment (Rousseau, 1995)]

Responsibility: Personal causal influence on an event (Cummings & Anton, 1990)

Self-evaluation: A comparison of current performance with the desired goal state; individuals check their progress against a standard or referent (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989)

Self-management: Deliberate regulation of stimulus cues, covert processes, and response consequences to achieve personally identified behavioral outcomes. Self-management techniques typically include: identifying problem situations, generating strategies for coping with problem situations, setting goals pertaining to these situations, monitoring progress toward goal attainment, and self-administrating rewards and punishments contingent on goal attainment (Gist et al.1991).

Self-monitoring: The individual's allocation of attention to specific aspects of his or her behavior as well as the consequences of the behavior (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989).

Self-reactions: There are two types of self-reactions. Self-satisfactions (an affective judgement) and perceptions of task-specific capabilities (i.e., self-efficacy expectations) (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989)

Self-regulation: The management of psychological processes involved in performance and includes cognitive variables that are implicated in human motivation (Gist, 1997). Self-regulation subsumes self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reaction (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989).

Social loafing: The tendency for individual effort to decrease when people work in groups rather than individually (George, 1992). The reduction in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively compared with when they work individually or coactively (Karau & Williams, 1993)

Stress: The quality of experience produced through a person-environment transaction that, through either overarousal or underarousal, results in psychological or physiological distress (Aldwin, 1995; Gist & Stevens, 1998).

Team: Teams share the four characteristics included in groups and also include collective goals or objectives (Ilgen et al., 1993).

Training evaluation: The systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and modification of various instructional activities (Goldstein, 1993)

Transactional leadership: Leadership in which leaders identify the needs of their followers and exchange rewards for appropriate levels of effort and performance (Bass, 1985)

Transfer: The degree to which trainees effectively apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in a training context to the job. The conditions of transfer include both (1) generalization of material learned in training to the job context and (2) maintenance of the learned material over a period of time on the job (Baldwin & Ford, 1988).

Transformational leadership: To move beyond transactional leadership to increase the level of follower's awareness for valued outcomes by expanding and elevating their needs and encouraging them to transcend their self-interests (Bass, 1985). Leaders transform the needs, values, preferences, and aspirations of followers from self interests to collective interests. Further, they cause followers to become highly committed to the leader's mission, to make significant personal sacrifices in the interests of the mission, and to perform above and beyond the call of duty (House & Shamir, 1993)

VDL (Vertical Dyadic Linkage Model; Graen & his colleagues): This model states that a leader and subordinate go through a role-making process in which they negotiate the terms of their collaboration (Chemers, 1997)

Whistle-Blowing Behavior (WB): Organizational members' disclosing illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices under the control of their employees, to parties who may be able to effect action (Near & Miceli, 1985; Van Dyne, et al., 1995)

Workplace aggression: Individuals' intentional efforts to harm people with whom they work or have worked in the past (Neuman & Baron, 1998). Aggression refers to injurious and destructive behavior that is socially defined as aggressive (Bandura, 1973). Such behavior may be physical or berbal and may harm a person (physically or psychologically) or property. Aggression is used to describe the potentially destructive act (the process) and violence is used to describe the consequence of the act (the outcome) (O'Leary-Kelly et al., 1996)